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The Faulted Earth July 18, 2008

Posted by ayaat in Uncategorized.
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“And by the Earth that has its own fault” (LXXXVI: 12)
This Qur’anic verse comes in the context of an oath, while Allah (all glory be to Him) is definitely above giving such a pledge. Consequently, this is understood as an emphasis for the special significance of the matter by which the oath is given.

What is the special significance of the faults of our planet?
Early commentators on the Holy Qur’an saw this significance in the fracturing of the soil on watering it properly to give a free, safe passageway for the tender, green shoots coming out from the germinating seeds that are buried in the soil, in the form of sprouting plants, which is very true. Once you place a seed in the soil and water it properly, it starts to germinate and a green shoot starts to penetrate the soil and grow into a fully developed plant, bearing beautiful flowers, delicious fruits or vegetables, and/or magnificent wood. Such penetration takes place through tiny fractures that develop in the soil as a result of its inflation by hydrolysis and warping upwardly until thinning out to the point of fracturing.

However, Earth Scientists have recently discovered that the Earth’s outer rocky sphere (Lithosphere; which is about 65-70 km thick under the oceans and 100-150 km thick under continents) is broken up by a network of deep faults or rift systems into 12 main rigid plates, added to a number of small ones (microplates or platelets).

These plates float on a semi-molten plastic layer known as the asthenophere (the sphere of weakness) and move freely away from or towards each other, and past one another. At one boundary of each plate (or microplate), molten rock (magma) rises to form strips of new ocean floor, and at the opposite boundary, the plate collides with the adjacent plate and moves to sink underneath it, to be gradually consumed in the underlying asthenophere at exactly the same rate of sea-floor spreading at the opposite side. An ideal, rectangular, lithospheric plate would thus have one edge growing at a mid-oceanic rift system (divergent boundary), an opposite edge being gradually consumed into the asthenophere, below the over-riding or colliding plate (convergent boundary) with the other two edges sliding past the adjacent plates along a system of transform faults (transcurrent or transform fault boundaries). In this way, the lithospheric plates are constantly shifting position on the surface of the globe, despite their rigidity, and as they are carrying continents with them, such continents are also constantly drifting away or towards each other.

As an oceanic lithospheric plate is forced under another oceanic or continental plate and its descending part starts to melt, viscous magmas are intruded and squeezed between the colliding plates, while lighter and more fluid ones are extruded at the opposite edge to form island-arcs. These eventually grow into subcontinents and continents, are plastered to the margins of nearby continents, or squeezed between two colliding continents.

Such divergence, convergence and sliding of lithospheric plates are not confined to ocean basins, but are also found along the margins, as well as within and in between continents. Both the Red Sea and the Gulf of California troughs (which are extensions of oceanic rifts) are currently widening at the rates of 3cm/year and 6cm/year respectively. On the other hand, the collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate, after the consumption of the oceanic plate that was separating them, resulted in the formation of the Himalayan Chain, with the highest peaks on the surface of the Earth today.

Fault planes traversing the outer rocky sphere of the Earth for tens of thousands of kilometers across the globe, running in all directions for a depth of 65-150 km are among the most salient features of our planet. These came to human notice only after the Second World War and were only understood within the framework of the concept of plate tectonics which was finally formulated in the late sixties and the early seventies of this century (cf. Hess, 1963; Morely, 1963; Wilson, 1965; McKenzie, 1967; Maxwell and others, 1970; Cox, 1973; Le Pichon and others, 1973; Dennis and Atwater, 1974, etc.).

These lithospheric faults are a globe-encircling system of prominent rift zones (65-150 km deep and tens of thousand km long) along which lithospheric plates are displaced with respect to one another divergently, convergently or sliding past each other. They are also passageways through which the trapped heat below the lithosphere is steadily released, and different magmas are steadily outpouring. Molten magmas in numerous hot spots, deep in the mantle, being less dense, tend to rise up and descend down on cooling in the form of hot plumes that create convection currents. Such currents carry the lithospheric plates and move them across the globe, with divergent, convergent, and sliding relationships. Divergence takes place at the rising tips of the convection current, while convergence takes place at its descending sides.

During the early history of the Earth, its interior was much hotter (due to the greater amount of residual heat of accumulation and the much greater amounts of radioactive isotopes such as 235U and 40K) and hence convection was much faster and so were all the phenomena associated with it {such as volcanic activity, earthquakes, plate movements, mountain-building movements and continental build-ups, (or the so-called ocean-continent cycle or the geosynclinal/mountain-building cycle), etc.}.

During these processes, both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere of the Earth were outgassed, the continents were constructed as positive areas above the ocean basin (through the accretion of volcanic island arcs into sub-continents and continents) and mountains were built.

About 500 million years ago the early continents were dispersed across the surface of the Earth, in positions much different from the ones occupied by the continents of today. Convection currents then operating in the mantle ended up pushing all the early continents together around 200 million years ago, into a single super-continent (Pangea) above a single super-ocean (Panthalassa).

The outer rocky sphere of the Earth (or lithosphere) acted as a lid, impeding heat flow from inside the Earth. The trapped heat produced a great rift system right in the middle of the mother continent, and this rift system propagated gradually though time, separating North America from North Africa (about 180 million years ago) and from Europe (about 150 million years ago), followed by separating South America from Africa (about 110 million years ago) and separating Greenland from Norway (about 65 million years ago), when Iceland began forming.

When this break-up of Pangea began, a westward waterway from the mother ocean (Panthalassa) in the form of a broad gulf (called Tethys) encroached gradually over Pangea, breaking it into a northern continent (Laurasia) and a southern one (Gondwana). Further fragmentation produced the present continental masses, which are currently undergoing more breaking up. The original rift is now the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, whose axis is still an active site of basaltic outpourings similar to many other rift zones along which current sea-floor spreading is taking place (cf. El-Naggar, Z.R., 1991, p. 42-45 and Emiliani, C., 1992: p 237, 238).

Basaltic material has been pouring out gradually from more than 64,000 km of mid-ocean rift valleys on both sides of such ruptures in the Earth’s crust, since the very early days of their formation. The youngest oceanic crust is always around the deep rift valley and has steadily been pushing older crusts away from it. The age of the oldest existing oceanic crust does not exceed the Mesozoic era (about 200 million years old), and is currently being consumed at the convergent edges of the plates with rates almost equivalent to the rate of producing new oceanic crust at the mid-oceanic ridges.

Volcanic mountains are also found on the continents such as the isolated peaks of Mount Ararat (5100m above sea level), Etna (3300m), Vesuvius (1300m), Kilimanjaro (5900m) and Mount Kenya (5100m). These are associated with intra-cratonic, deep rift systems that traverse the whole thickness of the lithosphere, and communicate with the asthenosphere, and hence are currently fragmenting the existing continents into smaller landmasses.

From the above mentioned discussion, it becomes obvious that the magnificent network of deep fault systems (65-150km deep) that encircle the globe for tens of thousands of kilometers in all directions {breaking its outer rocky zone (the lithosphere) into major, lesser and minor plates, microplates (or platelets), plate fragments and remnants} is one of the most striking realities of our planet. Without these deep fault systems the Earth could not possibly have been inhabitable. This is simply because of the fact that it is through such deep faults that both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere have been outgassed and are constantly rejuvenated, continents are steadily built and fragmented, mountains are constructed, the crust is periodically enriched with new minerals, lithospheric plates are moved, the accumulating internal heat of the Earth is gradually and steadily released and the whole dynamics of our planet are achieved. Consequently, such as established fact of the Earth is so vital for its existence as well as for our own survival on its surface that it becomes well deserving to be mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an as one of the signs of The Creator. However, such a fact did not attract the attention of Earth scientists until after the Second World War, and was not fully understood until the late sixties and the early seventies of this century. The Qur’anic precedence of such an established salient feature of the Earth more than 14 centuries ago is one of numerous signs that clearly testify for the purely Divine nature of this illustrious Book, and for the truthfulness of the Prophethood of Mohammad (PBUH)

 

 

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The Lowest district in the world April 29, 2008

Posted by ayaat in Universe.
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The lowest district in the world has been mentioned in the Quran before fourteen century. The Quranic verse which mentioned this fact has also given a correct information about a future event which later on took place & because the reason behind the embracement of many non Muslims to Islam. The above mentioned Quranic verse deals with the battle which took place between the Romans & the Persians at the early dawn of Islam. The Romans represent people of the holy book “The Bible” whereas the Persians were idol & fire worshipers. However, in that battle the Persians defeated the Romans. The Muslims did not like it. They did not like idol & fire worshipers to defeat the followers of a holy book. Muslims felt sad. Therefore Allah condoled Muslims by informing them a future event which will take place. In that event, Quran informed, the Roman will defeat the Persians. Quran said “A.L.M. The Roman Empire has been defeated – In a Land close by; But they, (even) after (This) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious – Within a few years. With Allah is the decision, in the past and in the Future: On that Day shall The Believers rejoice – with the help of Allah. He helps whom He will, and He is Exalted in Might, Most Merciful. (It is) the promise of Allah. Never does Allah depart From His promise: But most men understand not The Know but the outer “Things” in the life of this world: “but of the End of things they are heedless” [30:1-7] This verse told its contemporaries what would be & what it promised tool place. One of the idol worshiper came to Abu-Baker the companion of the prophet (PBUH) & with an air of unbelieving he informed Abu-Baker about this Quranic verse which he heard from the prophet (PBUH). The unbeliever expressed his doubt about it but Abu-Baker told him that it will take place & the Romans will defeat the Persians. Then after seven years the Romans defeated the Persians & what the Quran had said happened. The Muslims became very happy & rejoiced the news. It revealed the miraculous nature of Quran & large numbers of non-believers embraced Islam. They came to conclusion that whatever the prophet Mohammed is saying is actually a divine revelation which comes from the creator & sustainer of this universe. The above Quranic verse revealed that Quran revealed many things which was unknown to human intellect, Quran & its content is a challenge to human intellect therefore Quran is a divine revelation. The scholar Elzindani said that he met a scholar of Geology in America. His name was Palma. He is one of the distinguished scholars in the field of Geology in America. There was a model of Earth with him. The high & low areas were clearly indicated on it. However, the American scholar was not aware of the place, which is in reality the lower district on the Earth. The scholar Elzidani told him that there is a Quranic verse, which informs us that a district near Jerusalem is the lowest district Earth. He told the American scholar that in the above mentioned the word “close by” has been interpreted by former interpreters as of having two meanings, the first meaning is “more near” and the second meaning is “lower”. They gave importance to the first meaning because it expressed for them the sense of Geographical nearness to the Land of Arabs. However the Land which is described as “more near” “Lower” is the lower areas of the Dead Sea. However, the American scholar mentioned some other districts in the world, which are known to be low areas such as the low areas in Holland. But Shaikh Zindani confirmed to him that the lowest area on Earth is located in somewhere between Jerusalem & the surrounding areas. He asked the American to rotate the Earth embodied to confirm this fact. However, the American scholar rotated the Embodiment of Earth. He found many low areas on it, but when he came to the area mentioned by Zindani to be the lowest area in the Earth he found an arrow which point at it and indicate that it is the lowest place on Earth. The American scholar said that it is a true fact, Shaikh Zindani informed him that it is the Quran, which clarified this fact before fourteen century. It sib the Quran which came from Allah Who knows the reality of each & every thing. Source “The Age of Faith dawned” By Shaikh Abdel Majeed Elzindani


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